The Role Of Football Games’ Planning And Management On Stadiums’ Security

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate professor, University of Guilan, Iran

2 Professor, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Australia

3 Assistant professor, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Iran


Objective: In this study, the role of the planning and management of the football games on security of the stadiums has been investigated.
Methodology: Twelve semi-structured interviews with experts (one football expert, two stadium managers, five police officers, and four university professors) were conducted to provide data on the main factors affecting the security of Iranian football stadiums. A 28-item questionnaire related to the impact of planning and managing football games’ on the security of the stadiums was designed and 144 key participants (including police officers, soccer experts and organizers, and stadium managers) answered them. The obtained data was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a varimax rotation in order to identify factors, followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) which was conducted to test the impact of the identified factors and items on the stadium security.
Results: The results showed that game planning and management is one of the main factors affecting the security of the stadiums. In addition, risk and crisis management, communication management, match day service quality and finally cultural activities, respectively with 0.85, 0.83, 0.84 and 0.86 factor loading, as four sub-factors for game planning and management, affect the security of the stadiums (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Football games organizers’ proper planning and also stadiums managers’ good management will improve the security of the football stadiums by enhancement of spectators’ satisfaction and prevention of violent behaviors.